Types of Plastic Surgery – Overview
Plastic surgery is a surgical specialty involving the restoration, reconstruction, or alteration of the human body. There are different types of plastic surgery and it can be divided into two main categories namely: reconstructive surgery and cosmetic surgery.
Reconstructive Plastic Surgery
Reconstructive plastic surgery is performed to correct functional impairments caused by burns; traumatic injuries, such as facial bone fractures and breaks; congenital abnormalities, such as cleft palates or cleft lips; developmental abnormalities; infection and disease; and cancer or tumors.
Reconstructive plastic surgery is usually performed to improve function, but it may be done to approximate a normal appearance.
The most common reconstructive procedures are:
- Tumor removal
This involves the removal of cancerous organs from the body to prevent the spread or metastasis of cancer.
- Laceration repair
A laceration repair is a procedure used to treat tears or cuts that affect the skin and its underlying tissues, including the subcutaneous fat, muscles, and tendons. The procedure involves cleaning the wound and preparing it for repair to close it.
- Maxillofacial surgery
These are surgical procedures performed to treat an anatomical area of the mouth, jaws, face and skull.
- Scar revision
Scar revision surgery will attempt to minimize a scar so that it is less conspicuous and blends in with the surrounding skin tone and texture.
- Hand surgery
Hand surgery is concerned with acute injuries and chronic diseases of the hand and wrist, correction of congenital malformations of the upper extremities, and peripheral nerve problems (such as brachial plexus injuries or carpal tunnel syndrome).
Hand surgery is an important part of training in plastic surgery, as well as microsurgery, which is necessary to replant an amputated extremity. The hand surgery field is also practiced by orthopedic surgeons and general surgeons.
Scar tissue formation after surgery can be problematic on the delicate hand, causing loss of dexterity and digit function if severe enough. There have been cases of surgery to women’s hands in order to correct perceived flaws to create the perfect engagement ring photo
- Breast reduction surgery
Reduction mammoplasty refers to the surgical procedure for reducing the size of large breasts.
Cosmetic Plastic Surgery
Cosmetic surgery is a procedure that is carried out on normal parts of the body to improve appearance. Cosmetic is a very common procedure with about 16 million procedures carried out in the United States in 2014. About 92% of the procedures were performed on women.
The most common types of cosmetic surgery are:
- Breast Augmentation (boob job)
Breast augmentation refers to procedures that increase the size or change the shape of the breasts. When the size of the breast is increased, the procedure may also be called ‘breast implant surgery.
Breast augmentation is not the same as breast lifts or breast reduction, which are different types of procedures.
Liposuction is a surgical procedure that uses a suction technique to remove fat from specific areas of the body, such as the abdomen, hips, thighs, buttocks, arms or neck.
Facelifts repair sagging, loose, drooping, or wrinkled skin on the face. During this procedure, facial tissues are lifted, excess skin removed, and skin replaced over repositioned contours. Neck lifts are commonly done in conjunction with facelifts.
Other procedures commonly done along with facelifts include nose reshaping, forehead lifts, or eyelid surgery.
Abdominoplasty or “tummy tuck” is a cosmetic surgery procedure used to make the abdomen thinner and more firm. The surgery involves the removal of excess skin and fat from the middle and lower abdomen in order to tighten the muscle and fascia of the abdominal wall.
- Rhinoplasty (nose job)
Rhinoplasty refers to any surgery that repairs or reshapes the nose. Some people opt for rhinoplasty for cosmetic reasons.
- Jaw reduction
Jaw reduction surgery, also known as jaw shaving, is a type of surgery that is performed to narrow the jawline and make it V-shaped.
- Hair transplantation
Hair transplantation surgery, also known as hair restoration, is performed to improve the appearance of baldness. In this procedure, hair is moved from an area of thick growth to a bald area.
In a single session, more than a thousand hairs may be moved. Some people may require more than one session.
The hairs which are moved are permanent, which means that no long-term care is necessary. Most hair transplants result in successful hair growth after the procedure.